Tread, shoulder, sidewall, bead, carcass, belt, inner liner, and other components are structurally connected to complete the scientific structure of a tyre.
This thick layer of rubber provides the interface between the tyre and the road. Wear-resistant rubber is used to protect the carcass and belt against fractures and impacts and to deliver a long driving life.
The belt is a strong reinforcement found between the tread and the carcass in a radial or belted bias tyre. It functions much like the breaker but also increases tread rigidity by tightly winding about the carcass.
The part between the shoulder and bead, the flexible sidewall protects the carcass and enhances the ride. A tyre’s type, size, structure, pattern, manufacturing company, product name and various characters are indicated here.
Located between the tread and sidewall, the shoulder rubber is the thickest so that the design must allow for the easy diffusion of heat generated within the tyre while driving.
As the most important framework of a tyre, the entire inner layer of cord fabric is called the carcass. The carcass acts to support air pressure, vertical load and absorb shocks.
The inner liner is made of a layer of rubber that resists air diffusion and replaces the inner tube within a tire. Generally made of a synthetic rubber called butyl, or a rubber of the polyisoprene variety, the inner liner maintains the air inside the tyre.
The bead wraps around the end of the cord and fixes the tyre to the rim. It is made up of various parts including the bead wire, core, rubber and flipper. In general, the rim is slightly tightened so in the case of sudden reduction of air pressure while driving, the tyre will not become unfastened from the rim.